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> The present situation of the Cucuteni Museum
The royal tomb
The royal tomb
Trei Fântâni
stone path on Gosan hill

 

The actual situation of the museum must be considered on three aspects:
1. the preservation status of the funeral monuments.
2. the conditions created to protect the monuments and the archaeological reservation.
3. the theme of the exhibition.

1. The problems of the preservation of the Dacian princely monument are the consequences of the careless way the researches had been done from the beginning until 1989. The architectural setllement was deprived of the natural thin layer of clay, only four perpendicular strips were kept as witnesses.
Dromos-ul a fost decopertat complet, iar opus acestuia s-a decopertat un sector ravasit din cauza luptelor din cel de-al doilea razboi mondial, adoptându-se solutia decaparii terenului pâna la baza monumentului si lasând mai multi martori cilindrici din solul antic, care pastreaza la partea superioara pietre din mantaua tumulului, pentru a ilustra modul de realizare a tumulului. Aceasta solutie nu este prea fericit aleasa, deoarece induce vizitatorilor o stare de deruta, care nu realizeaza rolul martorilor.
The same happened with the pathways (dromos) and just opposite there is a section rummaged by the fights of The Second World War. Around the monument, the soil was removed and there were left only four cylinders of ancient earth that has, at the upper part, stones from the covering of the tomb. This isn’t quite a happy solution because it misleads the visitors because they don’t really understand the roles of these samples.

In the centre of the stone precincts there is also another ‘witness’ sample that illustrates the way the tomb was filled with stones and earth and it shows its maximum height. But it is difficult to believe that the visitors understand its role.

The construction raised around the tomb protecting it, has created a microclimate that is not quite appropriate. In the summer, because of the green house effect, the temperature and the humidity reach high levels, and in the winter the temperature drops below 0 degree C, moreover, due to the museum structure there is no possibility for natural moistening. In time all these led to the degradation of the monument, big cracks appeared on the samples and a few stones fell from the structure.
For a proper evaluation of the preservation status, the actual chemical and physical parameters were determined:


Determining the relative humidity of the ancient soil from the tomb:

*) The determining of the loss of water by maintaining the soil for 5 hours at 105 degrees C until the sample reaches a constant weight, it was done in the Physics laboratory of the Agronomy University of Iasi.

The chemical analysis was done on samples of ancient soil taken from the same zones as those for the relative humidity test: the cleaned off section, the witnesses left there and the one from the centre.

The results of the chemical analysis of the ancient soil taken from the tomb*)
Texture: middle- clay, dusty
Alkalinity: low, pH=8,1
Not salty: low content of soluble salts, 72 mg/100g soil
Clay content: 3-45
Low carbonic: CaCO3#1,17%

**) Many thanks to dr. F. Filipov, Agrotechnical University, Iasi.

Analyzing from the chemical and physical parameters, the following conclusion have been drawn:
-the relative humidity of the soil is extremely low;
-the low percentage of clay shows that the organic matter that could act like glue is scarcely present;
-the carbonic content is also very low;
-the value of the “n” factor, that is the relation between the water from the soil and the clay content, is more than “2”, fact that characteristic to a fluid soil which can slip through fingers and it crumbles easily.
-migrating of the soluble salts due to frost.

As for the second dome, which shelters a tomb and has a similar structure with the princely grave but smaller, it wasn’t protected so its preservation status is precarious.

2. Although there were many projects, only that from 1988 started, but due to lack of money it had to stop after 1990. Some of its accomplishments were:
-the circular building with a diameter of 48 m, of natural stone and a metal shelter, which protects the princely tomb; the building was repaired in the last decade, but the sealing was not perfect allowing the rain, the sand brought by the wind and the birds have partially affected the monument,
-starting the ‘Three Wells’ touristic stop and a parking place;
-the improvement of one of the two alleys on the Gosan hill;
-the implementing of the prefab structure of an amphitheatre;
-the raising in the museum of some prefab structure for a half buried touristic sight;
-the archaeological space has been delimited but not fenced.

The following aims have not been accomplished :
-an alley that would link the “Three Wells” stop and the plateau where the museum is;
-the half buried sight on the Gosan hill;
-the structure that would protect the first dome;
-a grassy amphitheatre;
-a second path from the Gosan hill to the parking;
-no signs for the museum.

3. The museum of Cucuteni has permitted to the museologists from The Moldavian History Museum to organize a permanent exhibition inside the building that shelters the main tomb. That was set on two floors, using panels and glass cases that were not entirely suitable for a museum.
The theme of the exhibition focused mainly on local history, from the paleolithical times to 19th century, based on archaeological diggings and showing mostly copies of the material discovered. These data were also integrated into the Cucutenian civilization as well into that Thracian, Getic and Dacian world. This exhibition is no longer of interest.

 

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